Friday, July 31, 2009

Watch this video before you proceed ^^v

I’ve been talking mostly about chemicals in the previous posts.
So now, I am going to talk about a special leaf. Its not just an
ordinary leaf but this leaf has “power” ! XD
Its anti-oxidant power is much greater than vitamin C and E.

Its reported ability to aid with the following diseases.

- Cancer
- Rheumatoid Arthritis
- High Cholesterol levels
- Cardiovascular disease
- Infection
- Impaired immune functions

In general, the benefits are as follows:

+ Aiding with weight control
+ Helps prevent tooth decay
+ Promotes good heart health
+ Lowers cholesterol
+ Reduces heart attacks
+ Aids in weight loss
+ Prevents skin damage
+ Improves circulation
+ Assists good digestive health
+ Soothes stress
+ Is antibacterial
+ Helps protect against diabetes
+ And strengthens bones

Is this clear for you to highlight that green tea is healthy?

Scientific discovers suggest that it may also help in preventing
bladder cancer, colon cancer, esophageal cancer,
rectum cancer and lung cancer.

Wow! This leaf is so great even though it’s just a leaf.

What leaf am I referring to???
The answer is,
.....obviously you knew it already....


Green teas secret is that it’s rich in catechin polyphenols
specifically epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) these
polyphenols are potent antioxidants.


What is that epigallocatechin-gallate??
Epigallocatechin gallate belongs to the family of catechins.
It contains 3 phenol rings and has very strong antixoidant properties.
Epigallocatechin gallate possess the most potent antioxidant
activity of the catechins.
It may provide health effects by protecting our cells from oxidative
damage from free radicals. A number of chronic diseases have been
associated with free radical damage, including cancer, arteriosclerosis,
heart diseases and accelerated aging.
EGCG interferes with many enzyme systems where
it inhibits fast-binding and reversible fatty acid synthase, increases tyrosine
phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, activation of ornithine decarboxylase.
Besides, it can protect the DNA in the human cells from ultraviolet and visible
radiation-induced damage.

Moreover, Epigallocatechin gallate may be effective in promoting
fat oxidation and lowering body weight as I mentioned earlier.
Green tea leaves are steamed, which prevents the EGCG compound
from being oxidized. By contrast, black and oolong tea leaves are
made from fermented leaves, which results in the EGCG being converted
into other compounds that are not nearly as effective in preventing
and fighting various diseases.
Basically, green tea is the best among other teas that exist such as
white tea, black tea and oolong tea.

Green teas don’t just exist for beverages, they also exist in the form
of chewing gums, ice-creams, cakes, cookies, chocolates and jellies!!!!!

Here are some pictures of them.
Green Tea Cakes

Green Tea Cookie

Green Tea Biscuit

Green Tea Chocolates

Green Tea Jelly

Green Tea Chewing Gums

Green Tea Ice-Creams

Have you guys seen this ice-cream machine before??

which gives u this!!!

And im loving it!
fyi, Im a fan of Green Tea! (o^____^)o

Im currently having those.

Green Tea (BOH)

Ice Green Tea with lime flavour (BOH)

I highly recommend you all to try this! The taste of green tea is really pure and I feel fresh everytime after drinking this.
(NISHIO 'Sencha' Japanese Green Tea)

Freshens my mind like this... lol!

I just had a cup of japanese green tea while posting this. Hahaaa =D

for further reading on green tea.
-Jaaaa-ne! (Bye)-

chemical reactions 7/31/2009 09:40:00 PM

Wednesday, July 1, 2009
deodorants = body odour

When we see a deodorant bottle, automatically 1 thing that
will just pop out from our head, that is body odour.

Body odour is never pleasant, and we've all been crammed on
a train or been in crowded places and noticed the distinctive smell
of stale sweat from even your own friends sitting next to you in class.

How and why body odour existed? Why??

Everybody sweats. We have to. Perspiration is the body's biological
way of cooling down.

Sweat itself does not smell, but it is a “wonderful” culture for the bacteria
that live on our skin. Woahh!! We have homes for bacteria! We’re cool
humans after all.

The bacteria break down sweat into aromatic fatty acids, which
produce the unpleasant odour. So, the cause of body odour is not
from the sweat itself.

Then, deodorants exist to overcome the body odour. Thank you to the person who created deodorants.

Now, the common ingredients in a deodorant are as below.

Perfume & skin conditioners

Perfumes and fragrances are used in most deodorants to
mask body odour and provide a feeling of freshness to the user.
Virtually all deodorant products will contain some emollient oils
to sooth and soften the skin by preventing water loss.
The moisturizers used in deodorants are usually glycerin or
vegetable derived oils, such as Helianthus Annuus (a sunflower oil).
Most deodorants will also contain masking oil to stop the product
drying out into deposits, thus minimizing what shows up on either skin or clothes.

The active ingredients of deodorants are often dissolved in alcohol
because it dries quickly once applied to the skin and gives an
immediate sense of coolness. Thus, alcohol is a common ingredient
in many roll-ons, aerosol deodorants and some gels.
Skin that has been sweating will sometimes have quite a greasy feel to it.
Silica is a natural mineral which is often used in deodorants to
mop up this oiliness so that users no longer feel the greasy after-effects of sweat.

Some deodorant products also include an ingredient called PEG-8 Distearate
which makes it easier to wash the product off in the bath or
shower at the end of the day.

Depending on the type of product, deodorants usually contain salts
to actually reduce the flow of sweat from the skin. These salts work
by dissolving in sweat and leaving a thin coating of gel over the sweat glands.
This coating reduces the amount of sweat on the skin for a number of
hours after the antiperspirant is applied. Aerosol and roll-on products
will most likely contain ACH (Aluminium Chlorohydrate), whereas sticks, gels
and other solid products are most likely to contain deodorant salt called
AZAG (Aluminium zirconium tetrachlorohydrex GLY).
These salts provide the safest and most effective means of controlling sweat.

Some people may be concerned about the use of aluminium in
deodorants believing that it can damage health. For example, it has
been suggested that aluminium is a possible contributory factor for
Alzheimer's disease. However, experts and research bodies
including the Alzheimer's Society say there is no relationship
between the two. In 2003 the U.S. Food and Drugs Administration
published a major study which concluded that deodorants and their aluminium salts are safe.

Carriers & structurants
In order for deodorants to be effectively applied to the skin, they
need to be held in some kind of carrying structure whether that be
the liquids used in aerosols or the solids used in sticks.

Water is used in a range of deodorants as a carrier for other ingredients.
It adds fluidity to products like roll-ons and creams and helps the
product spread onto the skin. In aerosol products the active ingredients
are contained in a neutral liquid which enables them to be easily sprayed
onto the skin. This liquid (the most popular of which is cyclomethicone)
is often combined with slightly denser clay called disteardimonium hectorite
which provides structure to the deodorant and stops heavier
particles sinking to the bottom.

In the same way that aerosols are transported via a carrier fluid,
other more solid products need an agent which will provide structure
and prevent the other ingredients from separating out.
This structure can be provided by a combination of ingredients
including Hydrogenated Castor Oil, 18-36 Acid Trygliceride, Stearath or Stearyl Alcohol.

Aerosol deodorants are designed to work via a thin film sprayed
onto the skin. To create this film, products contain low, medium
and high pressure propellants which produce a spray strong
enough to reach the skin, but not too forceful. In the ingredients
listing these propellants are called Butane, Isobutane and Propane.

Here are some deodorant related videos for you to watch! haha =]

chemical reactions 7/01/2009 08:57:00 PM

Saturday, May 23, 2009
Air fresheners for fresh air ???

Hey yo! How’s life going on? Haha. Not bad huh?
My 3rd post is about air freshener. You guys surely know what is that right?
Air freshener generally fragrances the air.
Normally found in the toilets, living halls, rooms, kitchens, closets and even in cars.
Why do people use air freshener? To get rid of the bad smell.
Like I said earlier, air fresheners’ fragrances the air.
The main purpose is to FRAGRANCE THE AIR! =O
But do they actually MAKE THE AIR FRESH? as in fresh healthy air?

So, this is what im gona do now. Revealing what air fresheners actually
do to ur air that u breath in.
They exist in many types. Examples:-

The point is what does an air freshener contains?
Not how many types of air freshener are there!

Air fresheners mainly contain about 1% of perfume,
24% of alcohols or other solvents and 75% of chlorofluorocarbon
known as CFC propellants.

That 1% of perfume is perfume oils giving the air fresheners fragrance.
These include aldehydes which are part of synthetic fragrance group.
Simplest aldehyde is called formaldehyde containing a carbonyl group
and at least one hydrogen atom bound to the alpha carbon where the
carbonyl group is attached to the end of a chain of carbon atoms.

Aldehyde structure

Molecules that contain an aldehyde group can be converted
to alcohols by the addition of two hydrogen atoms to the
central carbon oxygen double bond which undergoes reduction.
Organic acids are the result of the introduction of one oxygen atom
to the carbonyl group (oxidation).

Many aldehydes have pleasant odours, and basically, they are
derived from alcohols by dehydrogenation which means removal
of hydrogen, from which process came the name aldehyde.
Fatty aldehydes contain long chains of carbon atoms connected
to an aldehyde group. They have between eight and 13 carbon atoms
in their molecular formula. The fatty aldehydes have a
very pleasant odor, with a fruity or a floral aroma, and can
be detected in very low concentrations.
Due to these characteristics, the fatty aldehydes are used in the
formulation of many perfumes.
The aldehyde that contains eight carbon atoms in its
molecular formula is called octyl aldehyde and smells like oranges.

Octyl Aldehyde

The next longer aldehyde molecule is nonyl aldehyde, with nine carbon
atoms in its structure, and has the odor of roses.
Nonyl Aldehyde

A very powerful smelling compound is the 10-carbon aldehyde (decyl aldehyde),
which has a scent of orange peel and is present in small
concentration in most perfumes.
Citral, a more complicated 10-carbon aldehyde, has the odor of lemons.

Lauryl aldehyde, the 12-carbon aldehyde, smells like lilacs or violets.

Another 24% are made up of alcohols and other solvents.

i) Isopropyl alcohol or also known as isopropanol
This alcohol can be found mainly in the spray type air freshener.
Isopropanol is a clear and flammable liquid at room temperature
with odour resembles that of a mixture of ethanol and acetone.
It is the result of a combination of water and propylene.

ii) Pine Oil (comparable to turpentine in terms of toxicity)
Pine oil which is also one of the ingredients in an air freshener.
It is distinguished from other products from pine such as
turpentine, the low-boiling fraction from the distillation of pine sap,
and rosin, the thick tar remaining after turpentine is distilled.
Chemically, pine oil consists mainly of cyclic terpene alcohols.
It may also contain terpene hydrocarbons, ethers, and esters.
The exact composition depends on various factors such as the
variety of pine it is produced from and the parts of the tree used.

iii) Limonene
Limonene, a solvent in an air freshener. Orange and lemon peel
both contain a molecule called limonene. However, the limonene
molecule in orange peel has a different structure than the
limonene in lemon peel. The different structures
have different smells.

iv) Paradichlorobenzene
Para-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB) is an organic solid of white crystals
with a mothball-like odor. It is used mainly as an insecticidal fumigant
against clothes moths and as a deodorant for garbage and restrooms.

v) Phthalates
Many air fresheners contained a phthalate. Phthalates or
phthalate esters, are esters of phthalic acid and are mainly used
as plasticizers. There are many types of phthalate such as
Dimethyl phthalate, Diethyl phthalate, Diallyl phthalate,
Di-n-propyl phthalate, Di-n-butyl phthalate, Diisobutyl phthalate,
Butyl cyclohexyl phthalate, Di-n-pentyl phthalate, Dicyclohexyl phthalate,
Butyl benzyl phthalate, Di-n-hexyl phthalate, Diisohexyl phthalate,
Diisoheptyl phthalate, Butyl decyl phthalate, Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate,
Di(n-octyl) phthalate, Diisooctyl phthalate, n-Octyl n-decyl phthalate,
Diisononyl phthalate, Diisodecyl phthalate, Diundecyl phthalate,
Diisoundecyl phthalate, Ditridecyl phthalate, Diisotridecyl phthalate,
Polyethylene terephthalate.

The rest of the content of an air freshener is, 75% of
Propellants are any gas, liquid, or solid the expansion of which
can be used to impart motion to another substance or object.
They are usually butane, isobutene or propane.
Normally found in those spray type(aerosol) air fresheners.

Alright ! Now that I've listed most of the contents in an air
freshener, next is, have u thought about the consequences
in using air fresheners? Do you know about the health and
safety precautions that you should take note of???

Basically, air fresheners are highly flammable. Especially those liquid ones.
How about the solid ones? Aha! Put them in your mouth, swallow it and u will die!!
I am not saying you are going to eat an air freshener but kids will!
What makes me say that kids will eat up air freshener?? Look at the photo!

They look like candies!

Those chemicals found in air fresheners will affect your health!
And even causes death!
As i browse around the internet for this topic, I found this and
I want you all to know about this too.
Ethyl or Isopropyl Alcohol: causes flushing, headache, dizziness,
CNS depression, nausea, vomiting, anesthesia, and coma and
can be dangerous if ingested, inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

Pine Oil (comparable to turpentine in terms of toxicity):
irritates the skin and mucous membranes and has
been known to cause breathing problems. Large doses may
cause central nervous system depression.

Limonene: an irritant and sensitizer, classified as dangerous
for the environment.

Paradichlorobenzene : causes dizziness, headaches, and liver problems.

Formaldehyde: causes irritation of the eyes and mucous membranes;
inhalation may cause headaches, a burning sensation in the throat,
and difficulty breathing, as well as triggering or aggravating asthma symptoms.

Phthalates: causes damage to the liver, kidneys, lungs, and developing testes

Propellants : inhaling butane can cause drowsiness, narcosis,
asphyxia, cardiac arrhythmia and frostbite, which can result in
instant death from Asphyxiation, Acute toxicity and ventricular fibrillation.
Its not just bad for the environment but its equally bad for the health.
Please click this link to read more on Phthalates as it is very dangerous. =]

Theres ofcourse much much better ways to get rid of bad odours.
You dont need to go everywhere and *prsssssss prsssssss prsssss* your air freshener!
You dont even need to spend ur money to get an air freshener.
You just have to :
a) open up the windows for a better ventilation
b)clean up ur rooms/closets regularly
c)throw the thrashes out of the house
d)no smoking in the house!
e)JUST BE CLEAN ok? ^-^
Its all in your hands. Choose wisely. Be healthy. No sicky!

chemical reactions 5/23/2009 12:36:00 PM

Tuesday, May 19, 2009
Shampoo --->Rinse with water---> ?

*A Quiz for u all. Correct answer will be rewarded. Redeem reward when u see me in class.*
Complete the equation.
Shampoo + ? --> Nice healthy hair
A. Comb hair
B. Apply conditioner
C. Shampoo again and again and again and again
D. Get out from the bathroom and ready to go out without rinsing with water after shampooing

Anyway, back to the main purpose of this post.
From the previous post about shampoo, I’ve mentioned about roughness of the hair after shampooing mainly caused by the alkalinity of the shampoo itself. As we know, shampoos are used to clean dirt on our hair without realizing it also removed the conditioning agents which is an oily substance called sebum that can be found naturally in the hair follicle. This results in the swelling of the hair shaft where hair cuticles are raised up causing the hair to be rough.
Sebum’s main purpose is to make the hair waterproof and to protect them from drying out.
Unfortunately, shampoos tend to remove them from the hair cuticle caused by the surfactants commonly Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES) and its cousin Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS). To replace sebum that has been removed, conditioner is one of the choices to reverse the hair damaged.

What happens during shampooing and the role of a conditioner can be seen from this explanation. Please click on the link to get a clearer picture of it.


Although shampoos are made slightly acidic to lower down the percentage of alkaline, conditioner can be use to treat the roughness of the hair by keeping the hair cuticle smooth and slippery. Hence, our hair looks more shiny and manageable.

Do you know why our hair becomes smooth and manageable after applying conditioner?

Conditioners are creams, liquids, pastes or gels that imitate sebum. Keep in mind, they only imitate sebum.
One of the reasons is because conditioner contains silicone oils such as dimethicone that makes the hair shiny and slippery. Since, silicones are immiscible and water resistant, as a conditioner, some silicone remains on the hair shaft although it has been rinsed with water to improve manageability by reducing static electricity, decreasing friction where it minimizes tangles and smoothing roughened hair cuticle.

Chemical formula of dimethicone

They may be slippery liquids, waxes, or rubbers depending on the formula and the degree of polymerization and cross-linking of the polymers. Synonyms to dimethicones are Polydimethylsiloxan(PDMS),dimethicone,cyclomethicone,cetyldimethicone,cyclopentasiloxane and silicone oil.

Besides silicones oils, conditioners contain long chain fatty alcohols like cetyl alcohol, and oleyl alcohol. One end of the molecule binds to the hair and the other end which is the fatty molecules rub against the other strands of hair. This will cause less friction between stands of hair.

Chemical formula of:

Cetyl alcohol

Oleyl alcohol

Besides the silicones oils and the alcohols, conditioner normally contains vegetable oils, mineral oils, fatty esters and even hydrolyzed animal proteins to give the hair more useful nutrients.

Be sure to apply conditioner if you want ur hair to be healthy ya.

Im sure u don’t want your hair to be like this right? =X

Here's an example of conditioner advertisement.





All in 1 week ( should u trust this?)

Feel like 1 in a million ( err.....)


*whisper mode* Shineeee

Hmm, after i did this research about conditioner, I think I'll answer the quiz myself lah.

The answer is B. Apply conditioner.

Dingggggg!! correct! So dont need to trouble urself to redeem any rewards from me.



-The End-

chemical reactions 5/19/2009 08:10:00 PM

Friday, May 15, 2009
Shampooo-poo-pooo-pooo anyone?

First post, highlight on shampoos. =]

Why? Because I just shampooed my hair just now. Hahaa. ok ... lame =.=

Let’s just get back to the topic.

Well, I understand that most of you know the reason why you use shampoo to wash your hair.

But, do you know what’s behind the thick or creamy in the hands, and produce
a nice feeling lather with a nice smell from the shampoo you use?

If you don’t, Im gona let you know. If u do, let’s just explore the inner part of a shampoo together. Alright mates? ^-^

Basically, the reason we shampoo our hair is to clean it.

But the shampoo must not clean too well. O_o?
ehh?! I mentioned that shampoo is used to clean our hair right?
But why must NOT CLEAN TOO WELL?
Well, the fact is, because all of the protective natural oils in the hair would be stripped out caused by the chemical contents.
Natural oils in the hair are very important so that our hair will not be too dry.
On the other hand, excessive of oils in the hair will make our hair oily and that is when the shampoo comes to help.

This is what actually happens when washing hair with shampoo.

Do you know why shampoos are soluble and they can be easily rinsed away without scum?

The most common ingredient in shampoos is also the most common detergent in use in other products where a class of surfactants known as straight-chain alkyl benzene sulfonates. For example, Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES) and its close relative Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS)
A material that can greatly reduce the surface tension of water when used in very low concentrations. These detergent work best in water that has little calcium
and magnesium, as these elements bind to the detergent and make an insoluble scum.

Then, tetrasodium EDTA is used to sequester the calcium and magnesium from the detergent where it sequesters calcium and magnesium from hard water, preventing them from forming scum with soaps and detergents.

Chemical formula of tetrasodium EDTA

Alright now, why and how does shampoo produce a nice feeling lather like I wrote above?

This is caused by the foaming agent, Cocamide DEA made from fatty acids in coconut oils.

Chemical formula of Cocamide DEA

Most shampoos contain foaming agents to introduce gas bubbles into the water mainly for spreading the detergent over the hair and scalp for cleansing. This is why when we shampoo our hair, foam is formed.

But ofcourse the foam formed when we shampoo our hair won't have eyes and hands
like that picture lah.. =/

Not to forget another important fact about shampoo is the pH value.

Do u feel that your hair is rough?
This is because all basic shampoos are alkaline which causes hair shaft swelling. Thus, raising the cuticle of the hair somewhat like the scales on a fish and making the hair to be rough.
But somehow, they are formulated that way in order for them to clean our hair. But strong alkalines damage hair, so there are some products that are made more acidic.
So, to prevent this problem from occurring, most shampoos are made slightly acidic to keep the cuticle smooth and flat on the hair shaft.

This is how our hair looks like due to loss of cuticle as well as swelling of cuticle through exposure of the hair to the alkaline pH result in hair shaft damage .

To fight againts the alkalinity, ingredients like citric acid are added to acidify the shampoo which acts as the pH balance. Besides, there are many other pH balances added to the shampoo nowadays such as vitamin B5 (panthenol) and natural tea tree oil to ensure that the shampoo is not too alkaline which is not healthy for our hair.

This is how the cuticles look like when they are raised by the alkalinity of the solution.

Goodness... x____x

There are many types of hair such as normal hair, dry hair, oily hair, damaged hair and so on. Everyone of us require different type of shampoo that is suitable.
Better choose the correct type of shampoo for your hair instead of choosing those with nice smell/aroma and convincing advertisement.
Remember! The important part to look at when choosing a shampoo is the ingredients. Not the shape of the container, not the price nor the colour.
For instance, don't get too convinced with the result that lion got.



Cheers =]

Enjoy! XD

chemical reactions 5/15/2009 08:29:00 PM

helloee you.

Booo!! Welcome to my UniversityChemistry1 blog aka Assignment
Its basically about chemistry stuffs that I encounter in my life. Infinity appreciated if u leave comments =]


she's Etsu YoSHIDA aka crappy.
born on 25021991
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